Penstocks and weirs OPTIMUS

Compuertas y vertederos OPTIMUS

Penstocks and weirs OPTIMUS


This qualification is fundamentally based in the penstock’s adequate location relative to the water charge it receives. Nevertheless, Estruagua does not limit it, since it is in conditions to study, solve and build any type of penstock according to the client’s needs.

Manual Channel penstock spindle (Cvm-003.d)
Electric Channel penstock spindle (Cm-003.d)
Channel penstock hydraulic cylinder Cch-003.d

Manual bottom penstock spindle (Cfvm-004.d)
Gear box bottom penstock spindle (Cfvrm-004.d)
Electric bottom penstock spindle (Cfm-004.d)
Hydraulic bottom penstock cylinder (Cfh-004.d)

Freight car Electric Penstock of electric channel (Ccv-003.d)
Freight ca Bottom electrical Penstock(Cfv-004.d)

Manual weir longitudinal spindle (Vm-002.d)
Manual weir lowering board (Vrm-002.d)

Manual chisel Penstock(Co-003.d)
Manual chisel Penstock flow meter (Coc-003.d)

As powering systems of the penstocks, the following procedures can be used,

1.- Manual.
2.- Electric by engine drive.
3.- Electric by servomotor.
4.- Hydraulic.

Manual powering.- such powering is performed by means of a bronze screw nut jointly with a trapezoidal thread spindle, and a maneuver steering wheel whose technical characteristics are described in the penstocks’ design. Bronze or nylon rods, balls and sockets are also included. This powering in the penstocks of a single spindle can be direct or by means of a reducer, ball or rod axial rollers.

Engine drive powering.- The engine drive to be introduced will be applied according to the dimensions and penstock’s hydraulic pressure. It will have an optimum speed that produces a minimal wearing down of the spindle at the lifting of the penstock (0.03 mts/min.). The electrical powering will be accompanied by an electronic torque switch to avoid over exertions, and two end of trip regarding end of road.

In penstocks of a spindle the engine drive will directly couple, in two spindle penstocks it will be positioned at the extreme or at the center of the penstock and always accompanied of two gear boxes. It will carry a manual emergency steering wheel.

Servomotor powering.- in the servomotor there will be: end of trip, torque switch, and regulation mechanisms of the penstock, which will allow to regulate the levels. The servomotor’s position will be according to the number of spindles as well as the engine drive.

Hydraulic powering.- by means of a hydraulic cylinders, it only is of application in penstocks of a single spindle. The stem is directly joined to the chisel and the cylinder anchors to the penstock’s bridge. The system will be of all or nothing opening.

calculus for channel penstocks

Hydraulic pressure calculus for channel penstocks:

L = Free opening of the wall in meters. (channel width)
H = maximum water charge in meters. (water level channel)
Ph = Hydraulic pressure over the board in kg.

For channel penstock with board in reinforced plate and displacement rods,

Ph = 500 x (L + 0.08) x H2

For the rest of the channel penstocks and chisels,

Ph = 500 x L x H2

Hydraulic pressure calculus for bottom penstocks:

L = Free opening of the wall in meters. (hollow width)
H = Maximum water charge in meters. ( water level previous penstock)
Ph = Hydraulic pressure over the board in Kg.
H´ = Maximum water charge over the penstock’s center. (Water level- penstock ´s center difference)
H = Free opening of the wall free height in meters.

For a sliding penstock,

Ph = 1000 H´ x (L+0.05) x (h+0.03)

For penstocks with displacement rods,

Ph = 1000 H´ x (L+0.1) x (h+0.05)

For penstocks of small bottom leaks,

Ph = 1000 H´ x (L+0.025) x (h+0.025)

Penstocks’ description

Guide frame.- built in stainless steel of Aisi 304 or 316 quality, is of use as guide for the board introducing itself in the construction with quick concrete in the slices left in the channel for that purpose. The height of the frame is recommended to surpass in 900 mm the top of the maneuvering floor.

Base plate.- built in stainless steel of Aisi 304 or 316 quality, welded at the upper part of the frame powering supports are located. It will be constituted by a laminated profiles board, from where, if necessary, gear boxes will be coupled and transmission to power it from a lateral supposing two spindles.

Penstock’s board.- built in stainless steel plate of Aisi 304 or 316 quality, of thickness between 5.00 and 8.00 mm, with the necessary reinforces in laminated profiles welded to the plate and calculated to resist the maximum hydraulic pressure. In the upper central part, it will have welded the placement for the screw nut that gives movement to the board. At the center and in all its length it will have welded the spindle’s protection tube.

Displacement guides.- of low density polyethylene, self lubricating product with very good sliding conditions. Located at the extremes of the board and are displaced jointly to it through the frame that guides them accomplishing the transversal and longitudinal sliding.

Sealing enclosures.- closing is accomplished by means of stainless steel sheet metal of Aisi 304 or 316 quality complementing with the 50-60 Gr Shore A hollow neoprene profile at the laterals and the lower part.

Tightening wedges.- adjustable for a perfect coupling, built in bronze, screwed to the board and to the frame.

Powering mechanism.- formed by, steering wheel, maneuver column and gear boxes. Spindle is built in Din 109 trapezoidal screw nut, and in stainless steel of Aisi 303 quality, of diameter according to the length so it limits the arrow to 1/1000 of the length.

In its upper part it has a mechanized zone to couple the steering wheel’s support. The two spindles assembly is made from penstock’s width of more than 1.200 mm.

The lock nut is built with bronze material for the spindle powering. They will be located in the upper part of the board or the bridge (column) depending on the spindle’s procedure; this is, ascending or fixed.

The steering wheel is built cast, where a support with rollers will be located, which improves its manageability.

Gear boxes.- are hermetic boxes where an assembly of conic crows and gear pinions, rolling trees, etc., are located. That fit the in a vertical horizontal movement. They are assembled in the double spindle penstocks, depending on the necessary maneuver effort. The pinion-crown relationship will be of 1:2 to reduce the moment needed at the maneuvering point.

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